Death or Victory: The Battle of Quebec and the Birth of Empire by Dan SnowPerched atop a tall promontory and surrounded on three sides by the treacherous St. Lawrence River, Quebec City forms an almost impregnable natural fortress. But in 1759, with the Seven Years War raging around the globe, the capital city of New France came under attack. With the irascible British general James Wolfe in command, a force of more than 100 ships carrying nearly 9,000 men navigated the river, scaled the cliffs, and laid siege to the town in an audacious attempt to expel the French from North America forever. It would be a brutal battle, with British soldiers confronting the troops commanded by the French general, the marquis de Montcalm. They were on unfamiliar terrain and facing extreme weather, a colonial militia, and experienced First Nations warriors.
Using original research and multiple perspectives, Dan Snow grippingly describes the events that would reshape North America and, eventually, change the British Empire forever. Death or Victory is history—military, political and human history—told on an epic and thrilling scale.
Elizabeth Bathory – The ‘Blood Countess’
Mary I | 10 Interesting Facts On Queen Bloody Mary
Her life was full of tragedy, but it was also one that demonstrated great strength, courage, and tactical brilliance. Here are 41 facts about Bloody Mary that might make you change your perception of the queen. Although she only reigned for five years, Mary was a busy Queen. As she attempted to reverse the Protestant reforms started by her father Henry VIII, Mary had over dissenters of the Catholic Church burned at the stake in what was known as the Marian persecutions. Catherine also suffered a number of miscarriages before giving birth to Mary. Mary was baptised and confirmed in the Roman Catholic Church shortly after she was born, and her sponsor was quite the figure.
She had lots of stepmothers. When the pope refused to grant the annulment, the king broke with Rome, tied the knot with Anne in and became head of the Church of England. The king grew tired of his second wife and in had her beheaded after she was convicted of what were likely trumped-up charges of adultery. Henry had four more marriages: his third wife died shortly after giving birth to a son, his fourth marriage ended in annulment, his fifth wife was beheaded and wife No. When Henry died in , Edward became king. In , the teenage Edward became seriously ill and, not wanting Mary to claim the throne and restore Catholicism across the land once he died, he had her as well as Elizabeth removed from the line of succession.
By a special Act of parliament in April , Mary declared that women had all the power of men and queens could rule with the same force of law as their male counterparts. She was promised to the Dauphin, the infant son of King Francis I of France, at just two years of age, but the contract was retracted after three years. Henry's chief adviser, Cardinal Wolsey, then resumed marriage negotiations with the French, and Henry suggested that Mary marry the Dauphin's father, King Francis I, who was eager for an alliance with England. A marriage treaty was signed which provided that Mary marry either Francis I or his second son Henry, Duke of Orleans, however an alliance was later secured with France without the need for the Mary to marry. Mary was, amongst other things, a lover of fashion, a remarkable dancer, an outstanding musician and competent Latin scholar. However, one of her biggest indulgences was gambling - which is somewhat surprising given that she was a religious zealot and held such strong morals. Her privy purse accounts reveal numerous amounts of money lost in this way, including one occasion where she was placing money on a game of bowls and had to ask her servants to borrow more.
40. Fated to Rule
True Scary Story About Bloody Mary
Mary took the throne in , reigning as the first queen regnant of England and Ireland. Seeking to return England to the Catholic Church, she persecuted hundreds of Protestants and earned the moniker "Bloody Mary. James Palace in London on November 17, She was baptized as a Catholic shortly after her birth. Tutored by her mother and scholars, she excelled in music and language. In , Henry named her Princess of Wales and sent his daughter to live on the Welsh border, while he continuously tried to negotiate a marriage for her. After Boleyn gave birth to Elizabeth, she feared Mary would pose a challenge to the succession to the throne and successfully pressed for an act of Parliament to declare Mary illegitimate.