Situated Learning by Jean LaveIn this important theoretical treatise, Jean Lave, anthropologist, and Etienne Wenger, computer scientist, push forward the notion of situated learning--that learning is fundamentally a social process and not solely in the learners head. The authors maintain that learning viewed as situated activity has as its central defining characteristic a process they call legitimate peripheral participation. Learners participate in communities of practitioners, moving toward full participation in the sociocultural practices of a community. Legitimate peripheral participation provides a way to speak about crucial relations between newcomers and oldtimers and about their activities, identities, artifacts, knowledge and practice. The communities discussed in the book are midwives, tailors, quartermasters, butchers, and recovering alcoholics, however, the process by which participants in those communities learn can be generalized to other social groups.
Learning viewed as situated activity has as its central defining characteristic a process that we call legitimate peripheral participation. By this we mean to draw attention to the point that learners inevitably participate in communities of practitioners and that the mastery of knowledge requires newcomers to move toward full participation in the sociocultural practices of a community. It concerns the process by which newcomers become part of a community of practice. This social process includes, indeed it subsumes, the learning of knowledgeable skills …. Thus, analysis of school learning as situated requires a multilayered view of how knowing and learning are part of social practice … [P]ervasive claims concerning the sources of the effectiveness of schooling teaching, in the specialization of schooling in changing persons, in the special modes of inculcation for which schools are known stand in contradiction with the situated perspective we have adopted. All this have meant that our discussions of schooling were often contrastive, even oppositional …. It is an analytical viewpoint on learning, a way of understanding learning.
Summary: Situated Learning Theory posits that learning is unintentional and situated within authentic activity, context, and culture. Originator: Jean Lave . Situated Learning Theory Lave. In contrast with most classroom learning activities that involve abstract knowledge which is and out of context, Lave argues that learning is situated; that is, as it normally occurs, learning is embedded within activity, context and culture. It is also usually unintentional rather than deliberate. Knowledge needs to be presented in authentic contexts — settings and situations that would normally involve that knowledge.
Originator: Jean Lave Key Terms: Legitimate Peripheral Participation (LPP), Cognitive Apprenticeship Situated Learning Theory (Lave) In.
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Situated learning is a theory on how individuals acquire professional skills, extending research on apprenticeship into how legitimate peripheral participation leads to membership in a community of practice. Situated learning "takes as its focus the relationship between learning and the social situation in which it occurs". The perspective can be contrasted with alternative views of learning: "Rather than defining [learning] as the acquisition of propositional knowledge, Lave and Wenger situated learning in certain forms of social co-participation. Rather than asking what kinds of cognitive processes and conceptual structures are involved, they ask what kinds of social engagements provide the proper context for learning to take place". Situated learning was first proposed by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger as a model of learning in a community of practice. At its simplest, situated learning is learning that takes place in the same context in which it is applied.
Humans are socially curious beings and learn mostly through social interaction with others. Situated learning occurs generally when an individual is not intended or planned to learn. Participation and doing take main place in situated learning. Situated learning take place when learning is specific to the situation in which it is learned. Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger are the first presenters of situated learning, and they argue that learning is situated in certain forms of social coparticipation rather than asking what kinds of cognitive processes and conceptual structures are involved during the learning processes. They paraphrase learning as a social engagements in a
Lave argues that learning as it normally occurs is a function of the activity, context and culture in which it occurs i. This contrasts with most classroom learning activities which involve knowledge which is abstract and out of context. As the beginner or newcomer moves from the periphery of this community to its center, they become more active and engaged within the culture and hence assume the role of expert or old-timer. Furthermore, situated learning is usually unintentional rather than deliberate. Other researchers have further developed the theory of situated learning. Learning, both outside and inside school, advances through collaborative social interaction and the social construction of knowledge. Suchman explores the situated learning framework in the context of artificial intelligence.